Coconut Industry Threats
• Coconuts do have threats but not too lethal cf. BCS
• BCS is very deadly (like lethal yellowing in other countries) & caused by a phythosplasma
• BCS is only present in Madang based on 2012 survey.
• In a research study done (Furan site, Madang) on the rate of killing, BCS kills1-2 palms per month.
• BCS phytoplasma has 3 confirmed host plants i.e. Banana,
Betelnut and Coconut (Suspected in taro, yams, sago & cassava)
• Within 3 months a palm dies when BCS phytoplasma is present.
BOGIA COCONUT SYNDROME STAGES
BCS AFFECTED ZONES
- 1980-81- reports of Yaro & Vidaro plantations, Bogia affected.
- 2012 Ulingan/Tupira Guesthouse area affected
- 2012 Korak was affected
- 2013 Kuseng village
- 2013 Mobdub village/near to CCI Murnas
- 2017-2018 Katom village, Karkar Island
- 2009 Furan was affected
- 2014 Sagalau, near Madang town
- 2015 Gum bridge area to Mambu market, Siar village, Madang
- 2016-17 4-Mile market and Vidar/Maivara
- 2017-2018 – Rivo village/Jais Aben
Movement of BCS
• Through use of diseased planting materials – long distance movement
• Insect vectors – re-distribution of BCS locally by infected insects (short distance).
Implications for Food Security/Coconut Industry
- Potential problem – (killing 1-2 coconut palms a month) Every day Papua New Guinean & Smallholders’ livelihood seriously affected dependent on coconut for food, shelter, etc..and income.
- Food security issues major concern, bananas & coconuts affected – suspected in other food crops.
- Quarantine restrictions on sales of coconut seedlings in Madang Province.
Awareness & Internal Quarantine
- Madang declared BCS quarantine area
- Tapo check point
- no coconuts with shoots allowed through
- no planting materials of crops allowed through Others at sea ports and airport
- Awareness is on-going
- Sanitation (cut down & destroy disease palms). Only slows down epidemiology.
- Sanitation training and awareness done by NAQIA/KIK/Madang DPI in April 2016 (Only in Coconut Gene bank and its buffer zones).
- Genebank sanitation – weed control, coconut fronds & husk, buffer zone slashing, pruning of cocoa trees, drainage, mulching.
- Restrict movement of all planting materials within Madang Province and out of Madang.
- Implemented at Tapo Check point.
- Develop integrated pest and disease management (IPDM) strategies for BCS (development stage)
Other BCS related projects: International
- Cage studies to determine insect vectors for BCS
- ACIAR funded project at Mobdu.
- BCS Diagnostic Kit for coconut phytoplasma – development stage – Professor Jimmy Botella, University of Queensland, Australia.
- Relocation of Genebank in Madang to Alotau due to BCS threat – PNG Government and Darwin Initiative Project under COGENT.
- BCS Containment on sanitation work an enormous task and need resource requirements and support.
- Research into BCS related areas is slow (takes time) and very expensive.
- BCS is still spreading to new areas in Madang.
- Continues BCS Monitoring and Surveillance lacking within, Madang and throughout PNG.
- Social related studies lacking in BCS.
- GoPNG to provide funding for
- Implementing a sanitation program
- Improving check points at Tapo and various ports
- Relocating the Coconut Genebank to Punipuni, Milne Bay Provice
- Regular monitoring and surveillance of BCS in Madang and other provinces in PNG.
- ACIAR project on insect vectors, develop IPM for BCS
- BCS kills 1-2 palms per month
- BCS is a threat to Coconut Industry
- BCS impacts livelihood of every day Papua New Guinean and smallholders (and exporters).
- Host plants – bananas, coconuts & betelnuts
- Sanitation is a tedious task and needed full resource support
- Research result slow & expensive